How to Calculate Annuity Factors for Both the Present and Future Value of Annuities

Most of us at some point in our life would have made a series of fixed-amount payments towards expenses such as rent, car or house loan payments and so on. We would have also received periodic income in instalments in the form of a certificate of deposit or interest from a bond. These ongoing or recurring payments are called “annuities”. If you wish to know how to calculate the annuity factor, there are several methods to find out the worth of annuities or the cost of making such payments. This article talks about how to calculate the annuity factor for the present value (PV) and future value (FV) of an annuity.  

How to Calculate Annuity Factor for Present Value of Annuity ?

The present value of annuity refers to the current value of future annuity payments to be paid at a specified rate of return, also known as the discount rate. Higher the rate, lower the value of an annuity.

You can calculate the present value annuity factor to find out if you will receive more cash by taking a lump sum payment now or periodic payments spread out over several years.

The formula for how to calculate annuity factor for the present value of an annuity is:

PV = C X [{1-(1+r)-n }/ r]

Where PV = Present value of an annuity

C = cash flow per period or payment amount

r = interest rate

n = number of periods in which payment will be done

The present value of annuity indicates the funds needed today to fund future annuity payments. This calculation is done under the premise that the sum of money received today is more valuable than the same amount got at a future date.

Benefits of Calculating the Present value of Annuity

Here are the benefits of calculating the present value of an annuity.

  • The present value of an annuity is an indicator of the amount to be invested now to get the desired cash flow post-retirement.
  • You can find out the annuity payments paid after the accumulation phase.
  • The present value of an annuity can be used to assess the amount an individual needs to pay to an immediate annuity plan to obtain a specific annuity amount.

How to Calculate Annuity Factor for Future Value of Annuity?

The future value of annuity refers to the value of a bunch of recurring payments paid out at a specified date in the future at a certain rate of return or a discount rate. The higher the rate, the greater is the value of the future annuity.

The future value annuity factor is calculated to find out how much worth a series of payments will be at a future date.

The formula for how to calculate annuity factor for the future value of an annuity is:

FV = C X [{(1+r)n  - 1} / r] X (1+r)

Where FV = Future value of annuity

C = cash flow per period or payment amount

r = interest rate

n = number of periods in which payment will be done

Benefits of Calculating the Future Value of Annuity

Here are the benefits of calculating the future value of an annuity.

  • The future value of annuity indicates the payments that you will receive at a certain future date from an annuity planand the worth of the amount.
  • The future value of annuity calculation can help you make better financial decisions and plan your funds according to your financial goals and objectives.

What is an Annuity?

An annuity is a financial instrument that makes a fixed stream of payment to any individual. Annuities are mainly utilized as an income source for retired people. Annuities can also be defined as contracts issued and sold by financial institutions that invest funds of their clients. They help the investors maintain a regular stream of savings throughout their lifetime.

The time period between the date when the annuity is funded till the date the payouts are made is called the accumulation phase. Once the payouts begin, the annuity contract enters the annuitization phase. During the accumulation phase, investors can find the product through a lump sum amount or periodic payments. Once the annuitization period commences, the product pays to the annuitant either a single fixed amount or periodically for their remaining lifetime. Annuities can be either fixed or variable instruments offering immediate or deferred income, thereby offering flexibility to the annuitants.

Annuities are a reliable way to guarantee steady cash flow for individuals post their retirement and reduce fears of outliving one’s assets and savings. Through annuities, one can convert a substantial amount such as a jackpot win or huge cash settlements into steady cash flow. Some examples of annuities are defined pension amounts and social security as they pay out retirees a steady amount until their death.  

Types of Annuities

1. Lump-Sum and Periodic Annuities

Types of annuities depend upon many factors and details such as the duration of payments that the annuity can continue to make. Annuities can be structured in 2 ways – One where payments will continue periodically until the annuitant or their spouse is alive and the other where funds are paid out in lump sum for a fixed time period (say 20 years) irrespective of how long the annuitant is alive.   

2. Immediate and Deferred Annuities

The other classification of annuities is immediate and deferred annuities. They can either begin immediately upon deposit of a lump sum amount or they can offer deferred benefits. In immediate payment annuity, payments begin immediately after a lump sum payment. In a deferred income annuity, payouts do not begin right after the initial investment. Instead, the annuitant specifies the age when they would prefer to receive payments from the financial institution.

3. Fixed and Variable Annuities

Annuities can also be structured as fixed and variable annuities. Fixed annuities provide fixed period payouts to the annuitant. Variable annuities allow the annuitant to receive higher cash flows in the future if the annuity investments perform well and lower cash flows in case the investments perform poorly. Variable annuities offer less stable cash flow than fixed annuities but allow the annuitant to reap the benefits of high returns from the invested funds.

Variable annuities carry a slight risk of losing the principal of investment, certain features and riders can be added to them that let them function as fixed variable annuities. The annuitants can enjoy the benefit of the upside potential of the portfolio along with the lifetime guaranteed minimum withdrawal facility in case the value of the portfolio drops.

The Bottom Point!

Before you figure out how to calculate annuity factor for the present or future value of annuities, you must understand whether the annuity is an Ordinary annuity (payments made at the end of every period), or Annuities Due (payments made at the beginning of every period). Then you can use the formulas mentioned above to calculate the annuity factors to accurately determine the present or future value of an annuity.

Written By: PolicyBazaar - Updated: 11 May 2021
Pension Plans
Disclaimer: Policybazaar does not endorse, rate or recommend any particular insurer or insurance product offered by an insurer.
Retirement Plans
Monthly Pension Plans
Newsletter
Sign up for newsletter
Sign up our newsletter and get email about Pension Plans.
Higher Returns Than Fixed Deposit
You May Also Want to Know About
National Pension Scheme (NPS)
National Pension Scheme (NPS) – Govt Approved Pension Scheme National Pension Scheme (NPS) is a government-sponsored pension scheme that was launched in the year 2004 By Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority of India (PFRDA). The Nat...
NPS Calculator: National Pension Scheme Calculator Online
NPS Calculator National Pension Scheme Calculator is an online tool, which allows the individual to calculate the estimated lump-sum and pension amount that they will receive under the NPS scheme. What is NPS Calculator?  As the name sugges...
EPF v/s VPF v/s PPF: Which One is Better
EPF v/s VPF v/s PPF: Which One is Better Retirement planning has become the most talked about topic among people as young as 25. With so many investment options (Mutual Funds, Equity, ULIPs, NPS, Post office schemes, PPF, EPF Pension Plans etc.) c...
Best Pension Plans in 2019-20
English Hindi   If you are planning a secure retirement then investing in a good pension plan is important. A comprehensive pension plan with guaranteed maturity benefits, on-zero returns on all premiums and tax benefits is a crucial investme...
LIC Senior Citizen Pension Scheme
LIC Senior Citizen Pension Scheme Post demonetization the banks are cutting down the interest rates on fixed deposits. Hence, to safeguard the interest of senior citizens from failing interest rates the government of India has initiated senior cit...
Close
Download the Policybazaar app
to manage all your insurance needs.
INSTALL